What did Spain do to establish a colonial government?
At first, the new Spanish colonies were run by Conquistadors, but it wasn't working out.
Spain divided its American empire into two viceroyalties: New Spain and Peru. Each would be ruled by a viceroy
They built roads to control the colonies and make it easier to transport goods.
The Spanish government gave colonists the right to demand labor or taxation from Native Americans living on the land-encomienda plan.
The Spanish created large estates, called haciendas (plantations) to feed the colonists.
The encomienda and hacienda systems put much of the power and land in the hands of a few Spanish people.
The Class System
1. Peninsulares-colonists that were born in Spain-had a lot of power and good jobs
2. Creoles-people of Spanish descent who were born in the colonies
3. Mestizos-people of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry
4. Native Americans
By the early 1500s, slaves were a major part of the Spanish labor force.
Bartolome de Las Casas fought for better treatment of Native Americans.
"The Church and Crown oppoed the enslavement of Native Americans, but not Africans."